". [ Links ], FONT QUER, P. Dicionário de Botânica. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Donner mon avis. [ Links ], BELTRÃO, N. E. M.; VIEIRA, D. J. O agronegócio do gergelim no Brasil. Le Sésame à Florange Restaurants : adresse, photos, retrouvez les coordonnées et informations sur le professionnel Five days after pollination, the number of fruits set per treatment was checked to determine the periods of stigma receptivity, since the more receptive is the stigma at that time, the greater the percentage of fruit set (DELAPLANE et al., 2013; FREE, 1993). 321 Free images of Sesame. Langham (2007) described the development of sesame in 11 countries over 40 years and concluded that different genotypes can develop very differently under the same conditions. 3rd ed. E-mail: [email protected], All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License, https://doi.org/10.4025/actascianimsci.v36i1.21838. 13/02/2018. Before hand-pollination, the flowers were emasculated with the aid of fine tweezers, while their stamens were not releasing pollen. 1; 2; Marion. 2011. As flores foram observadas quanto ao horário de abertura, tempo de vida e receptividade de estigma, e aplicaram-se os seguintes tratamentos de polinização: polinização livre, cruzada manual, autopolinização manual, restrita com saco de filó e restrita com saco de papel. Like many food crops, bees are responsible for 80-90% of the pollination in sesame. Il a un effet analgésique et anti-inflammatoire : douleurs articulaires et rhumatismales, névralgies. [ Links ], SARKER, A. M. Effect honeybee pollinasation on the yield of rapeseed, mustard and sesame. Combien de temps vous reste-t-il ? After the flower fall the tulle bag was removed. [ Links ], MAHFOUZ, H. M.; KAMEL, S. M.; BELAL, A. H.; SAID, H. Pollinators visiting sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed crop whit reference to foraging activity of some be especies. Then the anthers dried up, changed color, darkened, and from white became yellow and brown. Pas de soucis. Around 11h, the flowers began to show signs of senescence, mainly by withering of anthers and drying of the stigma. For the same reason, the treatment of open-pollination, which promotes cross-pollination, was also superior to others and was not different from that of hand crosspollination (Table 2). -T2: Pollination restricted with paper bag - 144 flower buds were monitored for the occurrence of autopollination in sesame. Alexandria: ASHS Press, 2007. p. 144-182. SlideShare Explore Search You. Floral biology is an area of ecological research that studies the evolutionary factors that have moulded the structures, behaviour and physiological aspects involved in the flowering of plants. This procedure was repeated with groups of 20 different flowers every hour until 11h, when the availability of fresh pollen in flowers was minimal and stigmatic surface was dry and withered. Then there was a drop at 9h, which was even more pronounced at 10h, although these two times were not significantly different to each other. The pollination restricted with tulle, in turn, did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from hand selfpollination, indicating the importance of wind to transfer pollen between anthers and stigma in the same flower, in sesame, mainly because this treatment was also significantly superior (p < 0.05) to the other in which pollinators were prevented from visiting the flowers (pollination restricted with paper). 22/07/2017. The fruit set was assessed five days after the handling of flowers and fruit persistence was observed at harvest. 182 215 34. [ Links ], VAISSIÈRE, B. E.; FREITAS, B. M.; GEMMILL-HERREN, B. Protocol to detect and assess pollination deficits in crops: a handbook for its use. Anthers are yellowish and 1 mm in length. In: SHAHIDI, F. ABSTRACT Pollen production, viability and germinability were assessed in three sesame cultivars viz Kenana4, Ex-Sudan and E8. Floral biology of sesame The flowering period was from November to December, starting the ripening of fruit after 60 days of flowering. Its cultivation has great economic potential, because of great demand, both nationally and internationally. To study the time of anthesis and flower longevity, 30 flower buds in pre-anthesis were tagged and randomly bagged with 20x20 cm nylon tulle bags 1 mm mesh. As for the data concerning the weight and number of seeds per fruit, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in the number and average weight of seeds per fruit between the different treatments. 2nd ed. Sesame: Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae) Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is native to the Old Word tropics and is one of the oldest cultivated plants in the world.Sesame oil is not mentioned in the Bible, but appears to have been important in non-Hebrew cultures 2,000 to 4,000 years ago. 6 avis clients. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, v. 7, n. 47, p. 651-673, 2007. FLORAL BIOLOGY Soybean belongs to family legumioseae and it is highly self pollinated. Lire la suite. The bag remained on the plant until the fall of the flower. G. Sarwar's 12 research works with 203 citations and 9,482 reads, including: Sarwar G, Asghar MJ, Abbas G and Akhtar KP. [ Links ], BEDIGIAN, D. Evolution of sesame revisited: domestication, diversity and prospects. [ Links ], DELAPLANE, K. S.; DAG, A.; DANKA, R. G.; FREITAS, B. M.; GARIBALDI, L. A.; GOODWIN, R. M.; HORMAZA, J. I. - T5: Hand cross-pollination - This type of pollination was conducted in 176 flowers by following the previous method, differing only in the origin of the pollen donor flower, which in this case were flowers of another plant. Issues in new crops and new uses. Learn more. Despite showing the lowest rate of fruit set and differ significantly (p <0.05) from all other treatments, the pollination restricted with paper set fruits suggesting that sesame accomplish autopollination. The treatments of hand self-pollination, hand cross-pollination and free pollination yielded fruits with fewer seeds. 70 83 13. Sésame Bio - 9 rue des Tuileries - 43110 AUREC | Tel: 06 86 91 70 50. B. 2014. * Author for correspondence. It houses one of the world's largest and most accessible agricultural information collections and serves as the nexus for a national network of state land-grant and U.S. Department of Agriculture field libraries. The main producing countries are Egypt, Central Africa, Israel, Peru, Saudi Arabia and Macedonia. [ Links ], HWANG, L. S. Sesame oil. Nevertheless, the stage of sesame flower senescence was characterized by wilting of the petals, which started from 12h, followed by the almost immediate fall of the corolla. The experiments were developed from November to December 2008 and fruit were harvested in January 2009. For this, 120 flower buds were bagged and tagged and, in the next day, from 7h, when the flowers were already open and the stamens had released pollen, 30 flowers were debagged, hand-pollinated with pollen from flowers of another plant and bagged again. As polinizações restritas com papel e com filó produziram os frutos com sementes mais pesadas e uma maior quantidade delas dentro do fruto. Geobros (Jodhpur), v. 31, n. 1, p. 49-51, 2004. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, v. 77, n. 2, p. 226-231, 2002. A higher number of seeds per fruit is a desirable feature for sesame both from the commercial and ecological point of view, being an important indicator of plant reproductive success, since a greater number of seeds produced will increase the chances of perpetuation of species (ROUBIK, 1989). [ Links ], WIESS, E. A. Sesame. Seed Seeds Kernel Nut. (2002) for the cashew (Anacardium occidentale). In: DIETEMANN, V.; ELLIS, J. D.; NEUMANN, P. Une seule capsule de la plante peut renfermer 200 graines. They occur singly or in groups of two to three in the leaf axils and are hermaphrodite. [ Links ], LANGHAM, D. R. Phenology of sesame. Time of anthesis and duration of flowers were recorded. In this treatment we sought to estimate the effect of wind on pollination in sesame, bagging 174 buds. Watch Queue Queue Principais culturas do Nordeste. 50 39 9. Floral biology and pollination requirements of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), Biologia floral e exigências de polinização do gergelim (Sesamum indicum L.), Patrícia Barreto de Andrade*; Breno Magalhães Freitas; Epifânia Emanuela de Macêdo Rocha; José Antônio de Lima; Leonardo Lopes Rufino, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Avenida Mister Hull, s/n, 60356-000, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. This study aimed to investigate the floral biology and pollination requirements of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), cultivar CNPA G2. This is a text widget. This is the post excerpt. [ Links ], KOCA, H.; BOR, M.; OZDEMIR, F.; TURKAN, I. Finally, the free pollination resulted in the best fruit setting rate, which was significantly different (p < 0.05) from all other treatments, indicating that the visit by biotic pollinators is important for sesame pollination, whether increasing the efficiency of pollen transfer within the same flower or even bringing pollen from other flowers, providing cross-pollination, which was also able to set fruit in sesame (Table 2). Due to the lack of information on the pollination of sesame in the literature and its contradictions, the present study was conducted to study the floral biology and determine its requirements for pollination in the state of Ceará. For the experiment on pollination requirements, we randomly selected 813 flower buds, which were divided into the following treatments: - T1: Free pollination - 140 sesame flowers were tagged with a ribbon in order to know the level of natural pollination of flowers by the activity of pollinators in the experiment site. By ASAD AZEEM. Sesame bio vous propose une sélection exigeante - en terme de qualité, d efficacité, de rapport qualité / prix - de complément. Keywords: self-pollination, cross pollination, pollinators, fruit. The floral biology was studied in the following aspects: the flowering period, morphology and color of the flower, time of anthesis, flower longevity, period of stigma receptivity, number of stamens and anther characteristics. Studies on floral biology in sesame O trabalho objetivou investigar a biologia floral e as exigências de polinização do gergelim (Sesamum indicum L.), cultivar CNPA G2. [ Links ], HOLANDA-NETO, J. P.; FREITAS, B. M.; BUENO, D. M.; ARAÚJO, Z. Accueil Bienvenue sur SESâme. When the corolla of the flower falls, the style remains in the flower until the end of the day, falling in late afternoon, including in those that were hand pollinated and later generated fruits. Considering the stigma receptivity, studies in the literature are very divergent. Sesame (S. indicum), in addition to coconut, is one of the two oldest oilseed plants used by humanity, 248 with records dating back to about 6000 years. Got it! At this stage, while the flower was developing, the anthers of the longer stamens were located below the height of the stigma, but still closed, while those of the shorter stamens, in turn, were located well below the anthers of the longer stamens. Madson: ASA, 1980. p. 549-563. The Text Widget allows you to add text or HTML to your sidebar. The tubular corolla is white, with a lobe upwards and the other downwards. In this experiment, the number of seeds produced per fruit in sesame indicated that the pollination requirements of sesame flower were met. Tous les décès depuis 1970, évolution de l'espérance de vie en France, par département, commune, prénom et nom de famille ! Next, the pollinated flower was bagged again, aiming to isolate it, and properly tagged. ; Current Opinion in Plant Biology 6 (JUN03) 215-222, fait le point sur les diverses enzymes nécessaires à la synthèse de l'amidon, notamment sur les données récentes sur l'ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP), l'amidon synthase (SS), les enzymes ramifiantes (BE) et déramifiantes(DBE). Nevertheless, sesame seems to have evolved to favor self-pollination, but also developed mechanisms to attract biotic pollinators, such as differently flower, showy color, odor and nectar secretion, in order to promote some percentage of cross-pollination (FAEGRI; VAN DER PIJL, 1979). Donut Sweets Baking. Thus, sesame pollination can occur at any time from anthesis to 10h, but is most effective between 7 and 9h. Lire la suite. Jeannick. Access on: Nov. 6, 2013. [ Links ], FREE, J. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan S.A., 2007. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 2005. p. 537-575. In: JANICK, J.; WHIPKEY, A. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, v. 7, n. 50, p. 779-787, 2003. Two hours before anthesis, the four filaments of stamens elongated rapidly, so that at the time of anthesis (6:30 to 7h), anthers of longer stamens reached the stigma height, while those of shorter stamens were positioned just below the stigma. Unlike other varieties of sesame which have one or two flowers per leaf axil, the CNPA G2 variety has three flowers. The seeds were collected from the National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi and were raised to maturity in pots filed Revista Brasileira de Botânica, v. 28, n. 1, p. 85-94, 2005. Environmental and Experimental Botany, v. 60, n. 3, p. 344-351, 2007. [ Links ], ZAR, J. H. Biostatistical Analysis. Biscuit Nutrition Food. London: Academic Press, 1993. [ Links ], RAVEN, P. H.; EVERT R, F.; EICHHORN, S. E. Biologia Vegetal. Accepted on November 19, 2013. Sesame has zygomorphic flowers with pendulous tubular corolla of 3-4 mm in length and coloring of various shades of purple white. The study was carried out at Barbalha, State of Ceara, and consisted of two phases: floral biology and pollination requirements. Sesame Gluten and Dairy Free Sephardic Recipes. Houve diferença significativa (p < 0,05) entre os tratamentos no número de frutos colhidos 30 dias após as polinizações. These features are apparently common to many varieties of sesame, considering the similarity with that observed in other varieties by several authors (FONT QUER, 1970; PRATA, 1969; YERMANOS, 1980). In: FEHR, W. R.; HADLEY, H. H. Concluise que a cultura do gergelim é capaz de se autopolinizar e beneficia-se tanto da autopolinização quanto da polinização cruzada. Détails Catégorie : Uncategorised Mis à jour le dimanche 22 juillet 2012 13:38 Publié le mardi 14 juin 2011 11:15 (Ed.). Hybridization of crop plants. Probably, these treatments had greater deposition of pollen directly on the stigma, enough to fertilize all the ovules present in the ovary. The androceum is didynamous with four stamens, in pairs, one lower than the other, epipetalous, fused at the base of the upper lip of the corolla tube, and anthers with rimosa or longitudinal dehiscence. Le portail SESAME rassemble différentes applications de gestion utilisées par les collaborateurs de l’EPFL. [ Links ], ROUBIK, D. W. Ecology and natural history of tropical bees. In nature, self-pollination is less advantageous because it does not favor new genetic combinations and thus the production of more vigorous seeds and plants, so that some plant species have mechanisms to prevent the occurrence of self-pollination (CONSOLARO, 2005; RAVEN et al., 2007). The coloss beebook, volume I: standard methods for Apis mellifera research. Elle traite de leurs isoformes et des régulations de ces enzymes. According to these results, wind pollination had no effect on the number or the weight of seeds per fruit. Slide 11: The flower is zygomorphic with slightly bilabiate tubular corolla of 5 lobes. This video is unavailable. [ Links ], FREITAS, B. M.; PAXTON, R. J. (B)Stamen primordia and carpel primordia eventually form in sesame. [ Links ], MORETTO, E.; ALVES, R. F. Óleos e gorduras: processamento e análise. 2nd ed. The are five petals,one standard, two keel and two wing petals. It is believed that sesame is one of the oldest crops in the world, cultivated for over 4,300 years in Babylon and Assyria (HWANG, 2005). After 10:00 am, it was observed a marked decrease in the number of pollen grains available in anthers and, at 11 hours, it was no longer verified pollen in anthers of flowers. In fiscal year 2011 (Oct 2010 through Sept 2011) NAL delivered more than 100 million direct customer service transactions. " Sésame Bio - Produits Cosmétiques Bio - Huiles Essentielles Bio - Composé floral N° 1 ASSISTANCE - Flacons spray 10 et 30ml En poursuivant votre navigation sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de Cookies ou autres traceurs. Asia and Africa hold about 90% of the planted area (BELTRÃO; VIEIRA, 2001). Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. The country is a small producer with only 6,000 tons of grain produced per year on 9,000 ha and a yield of around 640 kg ha-1 (FAO, 2012). Sesame phyllody disease: its symptomatology, etiology, and transmission in Pakistan Khalid Pervaiz AKHTAR1,*, Ghulam SARWAR1, Matthew DICKINSON2, Mushtaq AHMAD1, Muhammad Ahsanul HAQ1, Sohail HAMEED 3, Muhammad Javeed IQBAL 1Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, PAKISTAN 2School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, … The flower produces nectar in a nectary disk surrounding the ovary and in a couple of extrafloral nectaries on both sides of the pedicel. Anthesis occurs early in the morning when the stigma becomes receptive and senescence can occur six to 12 hours later, depending on the variety and environmental conditions (FREE, 1993). (Ed.). Pollinations restricted with paper and tulle bags produced fruit with greater number of heavier seeds. The highest fruit set per plant due to crosspollination by biotic pollinators produces fewer and lighter seeds per fruit, but a greater yield per plant. The stigma was receptive from the moment of lobes opening until the late morning, i.e., from 7 to 11 hours, the hours between 7 and 9 o'clock were those which provided a higher percentage of fruit set (Table 1). Seeds handbook: biology, production, processing, and storage. This result indicates that despite the hand self-pollination increased initial fruit set, it does not necessarily mean that the flower has been fertilized and the fruit can be aborted in its early stage of development, as registered by Holanda Neto et al. The field is broad and interdisciplinary and involves research requiring expertise from multiple disciplines that can include botany, ethology, biochemistry, entomology and a range of analytical techniques. Florianópolis: UFSC, 1986. This variation in floral biology was probably due to different environmental conditions observed by these different authors in different locations and/or the variety studied is formed from crossing different varieties, producing a cultivar with high genetic variability. However, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was found in the comparison of fruit set rates at different times. The effect of salt stress on lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzymes and proline content of sesame cultivars. (2012), enhances the quality and quantity of seeds produced, and anticipates the period of ripening and harvest. [ Links ], MAZZANI, B. Cultivo y mejoramiento de plantas oleaginosas. Voir les autres cadeaux. The observations concerning floral morphology, color of petals, stamen number and anther characteristics were performed on 30 randomly tagged flowers, while flower buds were monitored every hour from the time of anthesis until they fall from the plant. It was a highly prized oil crop of Babylon and Assyria at least 4,000 years ago. For the farmer in the crowd. 12 12. Cream Milk Cream Sugar. - T4: Hand self-pollination (geitonogamy) - a day before the work of pollination, 185 flower buds that would open the next day were bagged with tulle bag and were protected from any possible pollinator. Parce que la qualité est gage d'efficacité, j'ai toujours eu le souci de proposer à mes clients des produits de grande qualité en PHYTOTHERAPIE, AROMATHERAPIE, HERBORISTERIE, NUTRITHERAPIE, COSMETIQUE. The results of fruits harvested show that sesame is a plant with mixed pollination, which produce fruit by both autogamy (auto and self-pollination) and crossbreeding (cross-pollination), like most higher plants (DELAPLANE et al., 2013). The androecium consists of four stamens, two long (1.5-2.0 mm) and two short (1.0-1.5 mm) and the gynoecium has superior ovary, multicarpelar and a long style (1.5 - 2.0 mm) with bifid stigma. Standard methods for pollination research with Apis mellifera. 125 164 38. Beef Bread Bun Burger. Introduction Sesame (Sesamum indicum Linnaeus) is an important oilseed crop grown since the beginning India ranks first in area, production and export of sesame in the world. Text Widget. One of the petals serves as a landing platform for the visiting insects. Data related to the requirement for pollination in sesame, i.e., fruit set depending on the type of pollination were analyzed using the nonparametric chi-square test (ZAR, 1984). Soybean has perfect flower consistig of calyx, Corolla, pistil and stamens. Barcelona: Labor, 1970. A comparison of two pollinators: the introduced honey bee (Apis mellifera) and a indigenous bee (Centris tarsata) on cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in its native range of NE Brazil. Cadeaux du mois. Le sésame est une plante oléagineuse dont on consomme la graine. (Ed.). This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. These characteristics of floral biology refer to varieties cultivated especially in warm weather environments, but there is evidence that varieties adapted to tropical conditions behave differently. At the end of December, the flowering decreased, ceasing completely in January. Unlike the floral formula, a floral diagram is actually a good representation of a picture of the flower. Available from: . It is concluded that sesame crop is able to autopollinate and benefit from both self-pollination and cross-pollination. After 10h, pollen grains were no longer observed with the naked eye and stigmas had withered up. London: Longman, 1983. p. 282-340. [ Links ], KEARNS, C. A.; INOUYE, D. W. Techniques for pollination biologists. You can use a text widget to display text, links, images, HTML, or a combination of these. 52 69 5. Huile de Tournesol Pure de Chine, Rechercher liste de produits de Huile de Tournesol Pure de Chine et de fabricants & de fournisseurs de Huile de Tournesol Pure de Chine sur fr.Made-in-China.com The last pollination was held at 10h, showing the lowest number of fruit set and significantly different (p < 0.05) from the time of 8h. At the end of December, the flowering decreased, ceasing completely in January. Très bien. B. Insect pollination of crops. Cercetari Agronomice in Maldova, v. 46, n. 3, p. 155. Figure 6. -T3: Pollination restricted with tulle bag - the same procedure of the prior treatment, except for the bag that was made of fine gauze. Upload; Login; Signup; Submit Search. The flowering period was from November to December, starting the ripening of fruit after 60 days of flowering. With respect to the floral development, floral buds had a green corolla slightly rigid, which with the passing of time was growing and changing from green to white. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were detected between treatments for the number of fruits harvested 30 days after pollination. It is widely naturalized in tropical regions around the world and is cultivated for its edible seeds, which grow in pods. (Rubiaceae). 7. ed. The results suggest that the type of pollination affect the weight and number of seeds per fruit. About; Contact; Gluten and Dairy Free Sephardic Recipes First blog post. Keywords: Biology, sesame, Antigastra catalaunalis, Leaf webber and capsule borer 1. This evidence becomes stronger because the manual self-pollination presented the second best rate of initial fruit set, implying the existence of a strong autogamy in this species. Fruits were harvested when ripe, and evaluations of seed weight and number of seeds per fruit were used for comparison between treatments. Menu. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2004. There are 5sepals, green,hairy sepals. Foi demonstrado que o gergelim é uma planta de polinização mista, pois pode produzir frutos sob qualquer um dos tipos de polinização testados. At harvest, a significant difference was detected between treatments (p < 0.05), but only the hand self-pollination differed from the others (Table 2). Sesame flowers are commonly pollinated by insects of the orders: bees (Hymenoptera), beetles (Coleoptera), moths and butterflies (Lepidotera), and flies (Diptera). Oil content : 37-52%. In this sense, although many plant species get more benefits by cross-pollination also accept a certain percentage of self-pollination. With regard to the pollination requirements of sesame, there is no consensus on the predominant type of pollination. [ Links ] FAEGRI, K.; VAN DER PIJL, L. The principles of pollination ecology. Sesame is called the queen of oilseed crops by virtue of oil it produces. The bags remained in flowers for 3 days, preventing any contact with biotic and abiotic pollinators. En soin du corps, l'Huile végétale Bio de Sésame Florame nourrit et régénère les peaux très sèches. Sesame was introduced in Brazil by the Portuguese in the XVI century from their Indian colonies (ELLEUCH et al., 2007; KOCA et al., 2007; WIESS, 1983). The best performance of crosspollination is probably due to exchange of genetic material promoted by this type of pollination, increasing the heterozygosity of the embryo formed in the seeds, which according to Mahfouz et al. . Brasília: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica, 2001. The current world production is estimated at 7,725,706 tons, with yield of 390 kg ha-1, being the ninth most cultivated oilseed crop in the world. Fortaleza: Imprensa Universitária do Ceará, 1969. v. 1, p. 153-162. The pollination restricted with tulle showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the hand self-pollination and hand cross-pollination, but pollinations restricted with tulle and paper were not significantly different (Table 3). (Ed.). Some factores affecting self and artificial pollination in sesame, Sesamum indicum L. Agricultural Research Review, v. 54, n. 1, p. 155-159, 1976.
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